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Supervisory practices

We ensure that banks can perform their vital role

We work with national supervisors to make the banking system in Europe safe and sound. In this section you can find out more about our practices, which banks we supervise and what measures we have at our disposal.

The Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process

As supervisors, we assess the risks faced by banks and check that banks are equipped to properly manage those risks. This is called the Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process, or SREP. Its purpose is to assess banks’ risk profiles consistently and take decisions about what supervisory measures are needed.

Find out more about the SREP

Supervisory priorities

The supervisory priorities set out our focus areas for the year ahead. They are defined annually but can be reviewed at any time if this is justified by risk developments. The supervisory priorities are based on our assessment of the key risks and vulnerabilities faced by supervised institutions.

Find out more about our supervisory priorities

List of supervised banks

We directly supervise the largest banks in the participating countries, in close cooperation with the national supervisors. They also supervise the smaller banks in their countries.

Find out more about which banks we supervise

Stress tests

We use stress tests to assess how well banks can cope with financial and economic shocks. They help to identify banks’ vulnerabilities and to address them early on in our supervisory dialogue with banks.

Find out more about stress tests

Supervisory data

Reliable and comparable data are the basis of our work. They inform our subsequent decisions and actions. To ensure transparency we also regularly publish our aggregated supervisory banking statistics.

Supervisory data

Joint Supervisory Teams

European and national supervisors work together when they directly supervise significant banks. One of the main forms of cooperation are Joint Supervisory Teams (JSTs). They carry out the daily supervisory work and foster a common supervisory culture and consistent supervision.

Find out more about Joint Supervisory Teams

Discover more about our practices

Supervisory measures

Our supervisory measures aim to ensure that the banks we supervise comply with prudential requirements. Our measures encourage banks to take the actions needed to address any issues as early as possible.

Supervisory measures

If banks fail to comply with prudential requirements or with our supervisory measures, we can also impose enforcement measures. We can only impose these measures in the case of ongoing breaches.

Enforcement measures

Sanctions are intended to punish misconduct and serve not only as a deterrent to the bank concerned but also to the banking sector as a whole. Our sanctions are also intended to encourage a culture of compliance within the European banking system.


In European banking supervision the ECB is in charge of banking authorisations. Here, the ECB applies the Single Rulebook of the European Banking Authority and, where relevant, national law. The ECB also works together with national supervisors to ensure a consistent approach and high standards across countries.

Fit and proper assessments

Suitable directors are crucial for the proper functioning of a bank. Banks must therefore ensure their suitability on an ongoing basis. The ECB acts as a gatekeeper and assesses the suitability of all members of the management bodies of all institutions under its direct supervision.

Fit and proper assessments
Administrative review

Without prejudice to the right to bring proceedings before the Court of Justice of the European Union, ECB supervisory decisions including those imposing sanctions and supervisory measures may be reviewed by the Administrative Board of Review at the request of the bank concerned. 

Administrative Board of Review


Our response to the pandemic


Find out more about how to share information with us

Banking supervision portal

The portal is the gateway for banks to our online services on the topic of banking supervision. You can submit information and communicate with supervisors via the portal.

Banking supervision portal


Use our whistleblowing platform to report a suspected breach of EU banking supervision law by a supervised bank, a national supervisory authority or the ECB.

Find out more about whistleblowing
European banking supervision at a glance

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