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European banking supervision at a glance

4 November 2016 (updated 1 October 2020)

In the system of European banking supervision banks are supervised by the ECB and the national supervisors of the countries that participate in the system: all euro area countries as well as those other EU countries that have joined European banking supervision. The ECB supervises the largest banks in these countries while the smaller banks are under national supervision.

Take a look at the infographic below to find out more about the objectives and functions of European banking supervision.

Objectives of European banking supervision

Safe and sound banks

Safe and sound banks

Stable and integrated financial system

Stable and integrated financial system

Consistent supervision of all banks

Consistent supervision of all banks


21 participating countries

Andorra

Non-EU country

Albania

Non-EU country

Austria

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Non-EU country

Belgium

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Bulgaria

Non-Euro area country participating in European banking supervision through close cooperation

Switzerland

Non-EU country

Cyprus

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Czech Republic

Non-Euro area country not participating in European banking supervision

Germany

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Denmark

Non-Euro area country not participating in European banking supervision

Estonia

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Spain

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Finland

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

France

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

United Kingdom

Non-EU country

Greece

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Croatia

Non-Euro area country participating in European banking supervision through close cooperation

Hungary

Non-Euro area country not participating in European banking supervision

Ireland

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Iceland

Non-EU country

Italy

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Liechtenstein

Non-EU country

Lithuania

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Luxembourg

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Latvia

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Monaco

Non-EU country

Montenegro

Non-EU country

Macedonia

Non-EU country

Malta

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

The Netherlands

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Norway

Non-EU country

Poland

Non-Euro area country not participating in European banking supervision

Portugal

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Romania

Non-Euro area country not participating in European banking supervision

Serbia

Non-EU country

Sweden

Non-Euro area country not participating in European banking supervision

Slovenia

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

Slovakia

Euro area country participating in European banking supervision

San Marino

Non-EU country

Kosovo

Non-EU country


Staffing of European banking supervision

More than
1,100 supervisors
at the ECB
More than
4,700 supervisors
at the national authorities

Supervised banks (as of 1 August 2020)

115
significant banks
under direct ECB supervision
2,611
less significant banks
under direct national supervision

82%
of euro area
banking assets

18%

Latest information on the number of supervised entities

Update: This explainer was updated on 1 October 2020 following the establishment of close cooperation with Bulgaria and Croatia.