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Payments and markets glossary

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B

backup system
A system designed to replace the primary system in the event of the primary system being unable to function for whatever reason. See also
business continuity
batch (bulk payments)
A group of orders (payment orders and/or securities transfer orders) to be processed together.
beneficiary
A recipient of funds (payee) or securities. Depending on the context, a beneficiary can be a direct participant in a payment system and/or a final recipient.
BIC
See
Business Identifier Code (BIC)
bilateral exposure
One party’s exposure to another party. See also
exposure
bilateral net settlement system
A settlement system in which every individual bilateral combination of participants settles its net settlement position on a bilateral basis. See also
net settlement system
bilateral netting
An arrangement whereby two parties net their bilateral obligations. See also
multilateral netting
net settlement system
netting
bill of exchange
A written order from one party (the drawer) to another (the drawee) instructing it to pay a specified sum on demand or on a specified date to the drawer or a third party specified by the drawer. These are widely used to finance trade and, when discounted with a financial institution, to obtain credit.
blocking
A process preventing the transfer of a specified amount of funds or a specified quantity of a security.
book-entry system
A system which enables transfers of securities and other financial assets which do not involve the physical movement of paper documents or certificates (e.g. the electronic transfer of securities). See also
dematerialisation
immobilisation
book-entry transaction
This term has two meanings. 1) In the field of securities, it refers to a transaction which is processed without the movement of physical certificates, being effected instead by means of credit and debit entries. 2) In the field of payments, it refers to a credit or debit entry made by a credit institution on the account of a customer in accordance with a general instruction issued by the customer (e.g. for a dividend payment or bank fees).
brand
A particular payment product (especially a card) that has been licensed by its owner for use in a given territory.
bulk payments
See
batch (bulk payments)
business continuity
A state of uninterrupted business operations. This term also refers to all of the organisational, technical and staffing measures employed in order to: 1) ensure the continuation of core business activities in the immediate aftermath of a crisis; and 2) gradually ensure the continued operation of all business activities in the event of sustained and severe disruption. See also
backup system
Business Identifier Code (BIC)
An international standard for identification of institutions within the financial services industry. The registration authority for BICs, which consist of eight or eleven contiguous characters, comprising a financial institution code (four characters), a country code (two characters), a location code (two characters) and, optionally, a branch code (three characters), is SWIFT.