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Monetary policy glossary

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I

ILS
inflation-linked swap
inflation
An increase in the general price level, e.g. in the consumer price index. See also
deflation
inflation risk premium
Compensation of investors for the risks associated with holding assets (denominated in nominal terms) over the longer term.
inflation targeting
A monetary policy strategy aimed at maintaining price stability by focusing on deviations in published inflation forecasts from an announced inflation target.
initial margin
For instruments cleared by a central counterparty (CCP), the amount of collateral that each participant is required to provide to the CCP (or the clearing member) in order to cover potential losses in the event of that participant defaulting. The initial margin is calculated on the basis of a formula set by the CCP. See also
haircut
margin
Integrated Guidelines
Guidelines adopted by the EU Council to promote growth and jobs, bringing together the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines and the Employment Guidelines. See also
Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs)
Employment Guidelines
interbank money market
The market for short-term lending between banks, usually involving the trading of funds with a maturity of between one day (overnight or even shorter) and one year.
interest rate swap
A contractual agreement with a counterparty to exchange cash flows representing streams of periodic interest payments in one currency. See also
cross-currency swap
interest-bearing claim
Any financial asset that gives its owner the right to receive interest payments from the debtor who issued the asset.
interest-growth differential
The difference between the annual change in nominal GDP and the nominal average interest rate paid on outstanding government debt (the “effective” interest rate). It is one of the determinants of changes in the government debt ratio. See also
debt ratio
intervention at the limits
Compulsory intervention by national central banks if their currencies reach the floor or the ceiling of their ERM II fluctuation margins. See also
ERM II fluctuation margins
intra-marginal intervention
Intervention by a national central bank to influence the exchange rate of its currency within its ERM II fluctuation margins. See also
ERM II fluctuation margins
inverse floating rate instrument
A structured note where the rate of interest paid to the holder of the note varies inversely with changes in a certain reference interest rate.
issuer
The entity which is obligated on a security or other financial instrument.