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Administrative Board of Review


Anti-money laundering

Banking union

one of the building blocks for completing Economic and Monetary Union, which consists of an integrated financial framework with a single supervisory mechanism, a single bank resolution mechanism, and a single rulebook, including for harmonised deposit guarantee schemes, which may evolve into a common European deposit insurance scheme.

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS)

the primary global standard-setter for the prudential regulation of banks and a forum for cooperation on banking supervisory matters. Its mandate is to strengthen the regulation, supervision and practices of banks worldwide with the purpose of enhancing financial stability. BCBS members include organisations with direct banking supervisory authority and central banks.

Basel III

a comprehensive set of reform measures, developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision as a reaction to the financial crisis of 2008. Basel III builds upon the Basel II rulebook. Its aim is to strengthen the regulation, supervision and risk management of the banking sector. The measures aim to improve the banking sector’s ability to absorb shocks arising from financial and economic stress, improve risk management and governance, and strengthen banks' transparency and disclosures.


Basel Committee on Banking Supervision


Basel core principles


Breach reporting mechanism


Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive


Countercyclical capital buffers


Common Equity Tier 1


Combating the financing of terrorism


Compliance and Governance Office


Court of Justice of the European Union


Centralised On-Site Inspections Division

Common procedures

procedures which apply to both SIs and LSIs. The common procedures enable the ECB to apply the single European rulebook in a consistent way. Common procedures include: granting a banking licence to a new company or extending an initial licence; authorising an acquisition of a participation in an existing institution; withdrawing a banking licence.

Comprehensive assessment

financial health checks which the ECB is required to carry out prior to assuming direct supervision over a credit institution. Comprehensive assessments help to ensure that the banks are adequately capitalised and can withstand possible financial shocks. The assessment comprises an asset quality review and a stress test.


Common reporting


Capital Requirements Directive


Capital Requirements Regulation


Capital Requirements Regulation and Directive: Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 on prudential requirements for credit institutions and investment firms (CRR) and Directive 2013/36/EU on access to the activity of credit institutions and the prudential supervision of credit institutions and investment firms (CRD IV). They are often jointly referred to as CRD IV.


Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier


European Banking Authority


European Central Bank


European System of Central Banks


European System of Central Banks and International Organisations


European Securities and Markets Authority


European Systemic Risk Board


European centralised infrastructure for supervisory data

European Banking Authority (EBA)

an independent EU authority established on 1 January 2011 as part of the European System of Financial Supervision to ensure effective and consistent prudential regulation and supervision across the EU banking sector. Its main task is to contribute to the creation of the European single rulebook in banking, the objective of which is to provide a single set of harmonised prudential rules throughout the EU.

Failing or likely to fail (FOLTF)

there are four reasons why a bank can be declared failing or likely to fail: (i) it no longer fulfils the requirements for authorisation by the supervisor; (ii) it has more liabilities than assets; (iii) it is unable to pay its debts as they fall due; (iv) it requires extraordinary financial public support. At the time of declaring a bank failing or likely to fail, one of the above conditions must be met or be likely to be met.


Financial and Capital Market Commission

Financial Stability Board (FSB)

an international body that promotes international financial stability. It does so by coordinating national financial authorities and international standard-setting bodies as they work towards developing strong regulatory, supervisory and other financial sector policies. It fosters a level playing field by encouraging coherent implementation of these policies across sectors and jurisdictions.


Financial Crimes Enforcement Network


Financial reporting

Fit and proper assessment

supervisory authorities assess whether candidates for the management bodies in banks are fit and proper. The ECB takes such fit and proper decisions for directors of the 119 biggest banks in the euro area, whereas fit and proper decisions for less significant institutions are taken by the national supervisors, except where a new banking licence is being granted.


Financial market infrastructures


Failing or likely to fail


Financial Sector Assessment Program


Financial Stability Board


Full-time equivalent position


Gross domestic product


Global systemically important bank


Global systemically important institutions


Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process


International Financial Reporting Standards


Internal Liquidity Adequacy Assessment Process


SSM Information Management System

Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP)

comprises strategies and processes used by banks to assess and maintain, on an ongoing basis, the amounts, types and distribution of internal capital that they consider adequate to cover the nature and level of the risks to which they are or might be exposed. The competent authorities review the ICAAP as part of the SREP.

Internal Liquidity Adequacy Assessment Process (ILAAP)

comprises strategies, policies, processes and systems used by banks to identify, measure, manage and monitor liquidity risk over an appropriate set of time horizons, including intra-day, in order to ensure that institutions maintain adequate liquidity buffers. The competent authorities review the ILAAP as part of the SREP.

Internal model

any risk measurement and management approach applied in the calculation of own funds requirements that is proprietary to a credit institution and requires prior permission by the competent authority in accordance with Part Three of the CRR.


Institutional protection scheme


Interest rate risk in the banking book


Internal Resolution Teams


Implementing Technical Standards

Joint Supervisory Team (JST)

a team of supervisors composed of ECB and NCA staff in charge of the supervision of a significant supervised entity or group.


Joint Supervisory Standards


Joint Supervisory Team


Liquidity coverage ratio

Less significant institution (LSI)

any institution that is directly supervised by NCAs, and indirectly supervised by the ECB. In contrast, significant institutions are directly supervised by the ECB.


Less significant institution


Member of the European Parliament

Minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities (MREL)

requirement for all EU credit institutions, with the aim of enabling credit institutions to absorb losses in case of failure. The MREL was issued by the European Commission in the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD). It has the same goal as the TLAC requirement. However, the specific capital requirements prescribed by the MREL are calculated differently, following criteria set by the EBA.


Money market statistical reporting


Memorandum of understanding


Minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities

National competent authority (NCA)

a public authority or body officially recognised by national law, which is empowered by national law to supervise institutions as part of the supervisory system in operation in the Member State concerned.


National competent authority

Non-objection procedure

standard decision-making process established by the SSM Regulation for the ECB’s supervisory activities. The ECB’s Supervisory Board takes draft decisions, which are submitted to the ECB’s Governing Council for adoption. Decisions are deemed to be adopted unless the Governing Council objects within a defined period of time, not exceeding ten working days.

Non-performing loans (NPLs)

under paragraph 145 of Annex V of the EBA ITS on Supervisory Reporting, these are loans that satisfy either or both of the following criteria (a) material exposures which are more than 90 days past due; (b) the debtor is assessed as unlikely to pay its credit obligations in full without realisation of collateral, regardless of the existence of any past-due amount or of the number of days past due.


Non-performing loan


National resolution authorities


Overall recovery capacity


On-site inspection


Other systemically important institution

Passporting procedures

procedures concerning the freedom of establishment and the freedom to provide services in other Member States of any credit institution authorised and supervised by the competent authorities of another Member State, provided that such activities are covered by the authorisation (as regulated by Articles 33 to 46 of the CRD IV).

Qualifying holding

a holding in a credit institution which represents 10% or more of the capital or of the voting rights, or which makes it possible to exercise a significant influence over the management of that credit institution.

Recovery plan

banks are required to draft recovery plans to prepare for possible financial difficulties and restore their viability in a timely manner during periods of financial distress. The core of the recovery plan outlines a wide range of credible and feasible recovery options to restore viability, for example to improve the capital or liquidity situation.

Resolution plan

in contrast to recovery plans, resolution plans are not drawn up by the banks but are prepared and regularly updated by the SRB and national resolution authorities. A resolution plan comprises a comprehensive description of credible and feasible resolution actions which may be implemented under the SRM if a bank meets all the conditions for resolution. It prepares the measures and the process for the potential orderly resolution of a bank by ensuring the continuity of its critical functions.


Regulatory technical standards


Risk-weighted assets


Supervisory examination programme


Significant institution

Significant institution (SI)

the criteria for determining whether banks are considered significant – and therefore under the ECB’s direct supervision – are set out in the SSM Regulation and the SSM Framework Regulation. To qualify as significant, banks must fulfil at least one of these criteria. Notwithstanding the fulfilment of the criteria, the SSM may declare an institution significant to ensure the consistent application of high-quality supervisory standards. Overall, the ECB oversees directly 119 significant banking groups.

Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM)

a mechanism composed of the ECB and NCAs in participating Member States for the exercise of the supervisory tasks conferred upon the ECB. The ECB is responsible for the effective and consistent functioning of this mechanism, which forms part of European banking union.


Supervisory Quality Assurance


Single Resolution Board


Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process


Single Resolution Mechanism Regulation


SSM Simplification Group


Single Supervisory Mechanism

SSM Framework Regulation

the regulatory framework setting out the practical arrangements concerning the cooperation between the ECB and the national competent authorities within the Single Supervisory Mechanism, as provided for in the SSM Regulation.

SSM Regulation

the legal act creating a single supervisory mechanism for credit institutions in the euro area and, potentially, other EU Member States, as one of the main elements of European banking union. The SSM Regulation confers on the ECB specific tasks concerning policies relating to the prudential supervision of credit institutions.

Supervisory Examination Programme (SEP)

for each significant bank, the JST produces a Supervisory Examination Programme, which sets out the main supervisory tasks and activities for the following 12 months, their tentative schedules and objectives and the need for on-site inspections and internal model investigations.

Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process (SREP)

the process used to guide the supervisory review of significant and less significant credit institutions and to determine whether (on top of minimum requirements) possible additional requirements should be applied with respect to own funds, disclosure or liquidity, or whether any other supervisory measures should be applied.


Targeted review of internal models