Ignazio Angeloni

Ignazio Angeloni has been a member of the ECB’s Supervisory Board since March 2014.


He was previously the ECB’s Director General for Macro-Prudential Policy and Financial Stability, coordinator of the ECB’s negotiations and preparations for banking supervision, and Adviser to the ECB’s Executive Board on European financial integration, financial stability and monetary policy.

Prior to that, he was Director for International Financial Relations at the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Mr Angeloni holds a PhD in Economics from the University of Pennsylvania. A Fellow of Bruegel (the Brussels think-tank), he is the author of several books and articles on macroeconomics, monetary economics, banking, financial regulation and European integration policy, published in top US and European academic journals.

Ana Botín

Ana Botín earned her BA in Economics from Bryn Mawr College, and then worked for eight years at JPMorgan in New York.


She joined Banco Santander to lead its expansion in Latin America in the 1990s. In 2002 she was appointed Executive Chairman of Banesto, recognised during her tenure as the best bank in Spain by Euromoney.

Ana led Santander UK as CEO from 2010 until 2014, successfully transforming the bank into the customer-selected Most Trusted Bank in the UK award from MoneyWise. In 2014, Ana was appointed Group Executive Chairman of Banco Santander. She serves on the U.K Prime Minister’s Business Advisory Board. Ana is also a Board member of the Coca-Cola Company and a member of the MIT’s CEO Advisory Board.

Ms Botín is an active leader in social responsibility initiatives. She founded and chairs both the CyD Foundation (supporting higher education) and Empieza por Educar (the Spanish affiliate of Teach for All).

Lael Brainard

Lael Brainard currently serves as a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.


She previously served as Treasury Under Secretary, where she was awarded the Alexander Hamilton Award for her work on the euro area crisis, international financial reform in the G20 and the Financial Stability Board, and the US-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue.

Prior to that, Ms Brainard served as G8 Sherpa and Deputy Director of the White House National Economic Council, where she worked on the US responses to the Asian and Mexican financial crises. She also served as Vice President of the Brookings Institution and as Associate Professor of Applied Economics at MIT Sloan School, where her research contributed to the measurement of structural unemployment and the debate on offshore production, trade and jobs.

Ms Brainard received her doctorate from Harvard University as a National Science Foundation Fellow.

Vítor Constâncio

Vítor Constâncio has been Vice-President of the ECB since June 2010.


Prior to that, he was Governor of Banco de Portugal from 1985 to 1986. In this position, he was engaged in several reforms, paving the way for Portugal to join the European Economic Community in 1986. In February 2000 he was reappointed Governor of Banco de Portugal, a position he held until May 2010.

In 1978 he was appointed Portugal’s Finance Minister and served as Secretary of State from 1974 to 1976, as well as President of the Commission for European Integration in 1977. He was also a Member of Parliament and President of the Parliamentary Commission on European Affairs between 1980 and 1981.

Mr Constâncio graduated in Economics from Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, after which he pursued post-graduate studies at Bristol University. He has authored several articles and papers on macroeconomic and financial topics.

Mathias Dewatripont

Mathias Dewatripont has been Executive Director of Nationale Bank van België/Banque nationale de Belgique since May 2011, where he is responsible for prudential policy and financial stability.


He has been a Professor of Economics at Université Libre de Bruxelles since 1990, focusing his research on the theory of incentives and organisations. Between 1998 and 2011, he was part-time Visiting Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Research Director of the Centre for Economic Policy Research. Fellow of the Econometric Society, and laureate of the 1998 Francqui Prize and the 2003 Yrjö Jahnsson Prize for Economics, he was elected President of the European Economic Association for 2005. He was also a founding member of the Scientific Council of the European Research Council (2007-12).

Mr Dewatripont obtained a PhD in Economics from Harvard University in 1986 and has published widely in the areas of contract theory, organisation economics, banking and finance.

Mario Draghi

Mario Draghi has been President of the ECB and Chair of the European Systemic Risk Board since November 2011.


Since June 2013 he has also chaired the Group of Governors and Heads of Supervision at the BIS. From 2006 to October 2011 he served as Governor of the Banca d’Italia. Prior to that, he was Vice Chairman and Managing Director at Goldman Sachs International, and a member of the firm-wide Management Committee (2002-05). He was Director General of the Italian Treasury (1991-2001), during which time he chaired the committee that revised Italy’s corporate and financial legislation and drafted the law that governs Italian financial markets.

Mr Draghi graduated from the Sapienza University of Rome in 1970 and received his PhD in Economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1977. He is the author of a number of articles on international and European monetary and financial issues.

Gunter Dunkel

Gunter Dunkel is President of the Association of German Public Banks (Bundesverband Öffentlicher Banken Deutschlands, VÖB).


He joined Bayerische Hypotheken- und Wechsel-Bank AG, Munich, in 1983, initially as Head of the Retail Banking Planning Department. In 1990 he advanced to the position of Executive Vice President and General Manager of the New York branch. He returned to Germany in 1995 as Head of Corporate Customers and Banks.

Dr Dunkel was appointed to the NORD/LB Board of Management in January 1997. In January 2007 he became Vice Chairman of the Board of Management of NORD/LB Norddeutsche Landesbank Girozentrale in Hanover, and in January 2009 was elected its Chairman and CEO.

Dr Dunkel graduated from the Vienna University of Economics and Business with a Master’s degree and a doctorate in Social and Economic Sciences. He also holds a Master’s degree in Law from the University of Vienna.

Charles Goodhart

Charles Goodhart, CBE, FBA is Emeritus Professor of Banking and Finance with the Financial Markets Group at the London School of Economics, having previously been its Deputy Director.


From 1985 until his retirement in 2002, he was the Norman Sosnow Professor of Banking and Finance at LSE. Before then, he worked at the Bank of England for 17 years, becoming a Chief Adviser in 1980. In 1997 he was appointed as an outside independent member of the Bank’s new Monetary Policy Committee.

Mr Goodhart has written books on monetary history; a textbook entitled “Money, Information and Uncertainty”; two collections of papers on monetary policy, “Monetary Theory and Practice” and “The Central Bank and the Financial System”; and a number of articles on financial stability. His latest books include: “The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision: A History of the Early Years, 1974-1997” (2011) and “The Regulatory Response to the Financial Crisis” (2009).

Roberto Gualtieri

Roberto Gualtieri has been a Member of the European Parliament since 2009 and, in July 2014, was elected Chair of its Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.


Within the Parliament, in 2011, he was co-rapporteur for the European Council decision amending Article 136 of the Treaty with regard to a stability mechanism for countries whose currency is the euro. In the same year, he was a member of Parliament’s negotiating team for the establishment of the “Fiscal Compact”. In 2012 he was negotiator in the working group set up by Herman Van Rompuy on a “Genuine Economic and Monetary Union”.

Mr Gualtieri graduated in literature and philosophy and has a research doctorate in contemporary history. He is associate professor of contemporary history at “La Sapienza” University, Rome, and the author of several books and articles on Italian and international history of the 20th century and on European integration.

Martin Hellwig

Martin Hellwig is Director of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods and Professor of Economics at the University of Bonn.


He is a Fellow of the Econometric Society, former President of the European Economic Association and the German Economic Association, and member of the Academic Advisory Committee of the German Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Previously he was a member and Chair of the German Monopolies Commission (1998-2006) and of two committees advising the German government during the financial crisis. From 2011 to 2015 he was Chair and subsequently Vice-Chair of the Advisory Scientific Committee of the European Systemic Risk Board.

Mr Hellwig studied economics at the University of Heidelberg and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has held academic positions in Stanford, Princeton, Bonn, Basel, Harvard and Mannheim and co-authored a book with Anat Admati that was published in 2013.

Philipp Hildebrand

Philipp Hildebrand is Vice Chairman of BlackRock and Chairman of Multi-Asset Strategies.


He also sits on the International Advisory Board of Oxford University’s Blavatnik School of Government. Until January 2012 he served as Chairman of the Governing Board of the Swiss National Bank. In that capacity, he was a Director of the Bank for International Settlements, the Swiss Governor of the International Monetary Fund and a member of the Financial Stability Board.

Previously, Mr Hildebrand served as Chief Investment Officer of a Swiss private bank and as a partner of Moore Capital Management in London. Between 2006 and 2009 he served as a member of the Strategic Committee of the French Debt Management Office.

Mr Hildebrand is a member of the Group of Thirty and an Honorary Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. He earned a BA from the University of Toronto, an MA from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva and a DPhil from the University of Oxford.

Jonathan Hill

Jonathan Hill is the European Commissioner for Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union.


His responsibilities include ensuring that financial markets are properly regulated and supervised so that they are stable, competitive and transparent. A British national, he was a Minister of the British Cabinet as Leader of the House of Lords (2013-14) and Under Secretary for Education (2010-13). He was Political Secretary to Prime Minister John Major (1992-94).

Commissioner Hill worked in publishing before joining the Research Department of the Conservative Party in 1985. He spent a number of years in the private sector working in public relations and crisis management, and in 1998 set up his own consultancy, Quiller Consultants.

He took up his current position in 2014 and one of his tasks as Commissioner is to put in place the building blocks for a Capital Markets Union by 2019.

Stefan Ingves

Stefan Ingves is Governor of Sveriges Riksbank and Chairman of its Executive Board.


He was appointed Chairman of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in June 2011. Mr Ingves also chairs the Advisory Technical Committee of the European Systemic Risk Board. He is a member of the ECB’s General Council and of the Board of Directors of the Bank for International Settlements, and Governor in the International Monetary Fund.

He has previously been Director of the Monetary and Financial Systems Department at the International Monetary Fund, Deputy Governor of the Sveriges Riksbank, Director General of the Swedish Bank Support Authority and Director General of the Financial Markets Department at the Swedish Ministry of Finance.

Mr Ingves holds a PhD in Economics from Stockholm School of Economics.

Sabine Lautenschläger

Sabine Lautenschläger has been a member of the Executive Board of the ECB since January 2014 and was appointed Vice-Chair of the ECB’s Supervisory Board in February 2014.


She represents the Single Supervisory Mechanism in the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, the Task Force on Simplicity and Comparability and the Financial Stability Board’s Standing Committee on Supervisory and Regulatory Cooperation.

Between 2011 and 2014 she worked at the Deutsche Bundesbank, becoming the first woman to hold the position of Deputy President. Prior to that, she worked for many years at the Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (BaFin – Federal Financial Supervisory Authority), holding several management positions, and in 2008 was appointed Chief Executive Director of Banking Supervision.

Ms Lautenschläger studied law in Bonn.

Jean Lemierre

Mr Lemierre was appointed Chairman of BNP Paribas in December 2014, having served as Advisor to the Chairman from 2008 to 2014.


He has enjoyed a long and distinguished career in international finance. From 2000 to 2008 he was President of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Prior to that, he was Head of the French Private Office of the Minister of Economy and Finance and Director of France’s Treasury.

He also served as a member of the European Monetary Committee and was Chairman of both the European Economic and Financial Committee and the Paris Club. Previously he had served as the Head of France’s Internal Revenue Service and Head of the Tax Policy Administration.

Mr Lemierre attended the Institut d’Études Politiques de Paris. He earned a degree in Law and is a graduate of the École Nationale d’Administration.

Danièle Nouy

Ms Nouy joined the ECB in January 2014 as Chair of the Supervisory Board, following a 40-year career in banking supervision.


She began her working life as a supervisor at the Banque de France and was posted to the United States as its representative in New York, before returning to France as a policy expert in the Foreign Department. She became the head of the Research Department and policy group in 1987 and was appointed Director of Financial Supervision in 1990. In 1993 she became the French member of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and in 1998 was appointed Secretary General, a position which she held until 2003. Returning to France, she became the head of the French supervisory authority.

Ms Nouy holds a degree in Political Science and Public Administration from the Institut d’Études Politiques, Paris, and a post-graduate diploma in Law. She has authored numerous articles on international and European financial supervision and regulation.

André Sapir

André Sapir is a Professor at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Senior Fellow of Bruegel, the Brussels-based think-tank, and Research Fellow of the Centre for Economic Policy Research.


Previously he worked for the European Commission, first as Economic Advisor to the Director-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, and then as Economic Advisor to President Romano Prodi and Executive Director of his Economic Advisory Group. From 2005 to 2009 he was an external member of President José Manuel Barroso’s Economic Advisory Group.

From 2011 to 2015 he was successively Vice-Chair and Chair of the Advisory Scientific Committee and member of the General Board of the European Systemic Risk Board. Mr Sapir holds a PhD in Economics from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. He has written extensively on various aspects of Europe’s Economic and Monetary Union, including banking union.

Mark Schieritz

Mark Schieritz is the business correspondent of the German newspaper Die Zeit.


He has held a number of positions in the media industry, including Frankfurt Bureau Chief at Die Zeit and Capital Markets Editor at Financial Times Deutschland. In 2012 he received the Media Award of the German Keynes Society and was elected one of Germany’s top journalists for his coverage of the crisis in the euro area. He is frequently interviewed by national and international media as an expert on economic affairs.

Mr Schieritz studied Economics and Political Science at the University of Freiburg and the London School of Economics, graduating with distinction. He has published two books, co-authored articles in academic journals and runs his own blog. In the past he was also Visiting Professor at the Economics Department of the Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft in Berlin.

Jean Tirole

Jean Tirole is chairman of the Foundation J.-J. Laffont - Toulouse School of Economics and 2014 laureate of the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.


He is scientific director of the Institute for Industrial Economics (IDEI), University of Toulouse Capitole, and is affiliated with MIT, the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, and the Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse, which he helped found in 2011.

Mr Tirole received his PhD in Economics from MIT in 1981, engineering degrees from École Polytechnique, Paris (1976) and École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris (1978), and a Doctorate in decision mathematics from the University Paris IX (1978).

He has given over 80 distinguished lectures and published about 200 articles in economics and finance, as well as 11 books. He has been awarded numerous honorary doctorates, as well as many other prizes and honours.

Nicolas Véron

Nicolas Véron is Senior Fellow at Bruegel, which he co-founded, and a Visiting Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.


His research is primarily about financial systems and financial services policy. A graduate of France’s École Polytechnique and École des Mines, he held senior positions in the French government and private sector in the 1990s and early 2000s. He is also an independent board member of the global derivatives trade repository arm of DTCC.

He has been a witness at parliamentary hearings in the US Senate, the European Parliament and in several EU countries; a financial policy expert for the European Commission and the European Court of Auditors; and a consultant to the International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

In September 2012 Bloomberg Markets included Mr Véron in its yearly global “50 Most Influential” list, with reference to his early advocacy of European banking union.